Dating from 1478, this is Europe’s second-oldest ‘surviving’ Jewish cemetery. Some 12,000 tombstones are located here, each crammed into a tiny space, with the oldest dating back to 1439. Indeed, because it was forbidden to enlarge the burial ground beyond the walled ghetto, the Jews were forced to bury their dead on top of each other – meaning that an estimated 100,000 bodies in about 12,000 graves lie here. Among the cemetery’s distinguished stones are those of Rabbi Avigdor Kara, Mordecai Maisel, Rabbi Löw (his real name being Jehuda ben Bezalel, the creator of the Golem) and David Oppenheimer. The cemetery was closed in 1787.